- (1) WHO global report on trends in prevalence of tobacco use 2000-2025, third edition. (2019). World Health Organization. https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/who-global-report-on-trends-in-prevalence-of-tobacco-use-2000-2025-third-edition. (2) Department of Economic and Social Affairs (Ed.). (2019). World Population Prospects 2019 (Online Edition Rev. 1.; Population Division). United Nations. https://population.un.org/wpp/Download/Standard/Population/
- The Tobacco Atlas. Available at: https://tobaccoatlas.org/topic/deaths/ Data source: GBD 2016 Risk Factors Collaborators.
- JTI: Japanese Domestic Cigarette Sales Results.